The Fungicide “KESTREL®” "Propiconazole" 14.3 MECHow does it work?THE OAK WILT DISEASE: All oak species native to North America are susceptible to oak wilt. The White Oaks are highly resistant to the oak wilt fungus. Red Oaks and the Live Oak are highly susceptible and this includes the Lacey Oak, in spite of it being of the white oak family.The beetles fly to healthy oaks and feeds from open wounds caused by irresponsible Tree Timmers, squirrels, wood peckers or high winds in the upper branches. The water conducting vessels (the xylem) are exposed to the beetle-carried spores as the insect feeds from the open wounds. Once established, the fungus can move through the tree’s vascular and phloem systems, resulting in systemic infection. The initial fungus spread is relative slow and the developing infections are not apparent until the fungus moves into the larger branches and then rapid wilting will occur. The disease is also spread from the same species by interconnected root grafts. Death of a tree infected through root graft is much more rapid than caused by the beetle. A Sterol Biosynthesis InhibitorSterols are essential compounds in the cells of all living organisms, components of cell membranes and other important anatomical features. The triazole fungicide Propiconazole is effective in management of the oak wilt disease, it possesses systemic and some curative properties against certain fungal diseases. It is a highly systemic sterol inhibitor that penetrates and trans-locates, preventing fungal cell development, by interfering with cell wall formation and growth throughout the plant by inhibiting sterol biosynthesis. Propiconazole is rapidly absorbed by the assimilating parts of the plant, mostly within one hour of treatment. It is transported acropetally (upwards) in the xylem. This systemic translocation contributes to good distribution of the active ingredient within the plant tissue.Propiconazole is a member of the DMI-fungicides group (demethylation inhibitors) These materials act on the fungal pathogen inside the plant at the stage of first haustoria formation and stop disease development by interfering with sterol biosynthesis in fungal cell membranes.Propiconazole has protective, curative and eradicant activity, although best results will be achieved when it is applied when the disease is still in the early stages of development. It is recommended that application begins when conditions are favorable for disease infection and at the very beginning of disease symptom expression.Propoiconazole is absorbed into the fungus where its two modes of action attack fungal cells at several sites altering the cell, thereby inhibiting sulfur-containing enzymes and disrupting fungal energy production. It has preventive activity, and is primarily active on mycelium with some anti-sporulant activity, and prevents spore germination. . The commercially available formulation of propiconazole 14.3% MEC (microencapsulated) is available but not limited to; KESTREL®, Quali-Pro ®, and Alamo ®,. Propiconazole at the preventive dosage rate is 10 mils per diameter inch provides protection for multiple seasons. However there is no residual activity in the tree after 23-24 months. Foliar toxicity of propiconazole is low, even at rates of up to the highest label rate, though severe phytotoxicity may occur with high dosage rates on small diameter trees when treated early in the growing season. Propiconazole does not require high dilution rates with water so treatment is considerably faster uptake, and there is less tissue injury at the injection site due to the fact that it has a near neutral pH. The injection treatment is not a universal CURE, however it will extend the life of the tree, and is effective for inhibiting the disease in uninfected or newly infected trees. Designed for use on high-value trees in your landscape, trees should be selected for preventive treatment based on the risk of the disease pressure. The chemical residual in the tree is effective for about 24 months and preventive re-treatment should be considered and applied within the second and third year. Trees that were infected and are in a weakened condition should be retreated the following year. ….. Prevention is better than cure….Injection with the Chemjet Tree Injectors provides your trees with a very effective micro injection booster shot with a volume of 10 mils propiconizole and 10 mils of water providing very effective results with each injector placed every 3"equidistant around the base of the tree at 4-6 inches above the soil line. The Macro systems provide very high dilutions applications (eg: for a 16 inch diameter tree requires160 mils of the prescribed fungicide, mixed with 16 litres of water . This is a very high dilution rate representing a few parts per million dosage)The Chemjet application utilizes the trees natural transport system to deliver a higher concentration of the fungicide with far more effective results. In nine years of treating trees with the preventive dosage rate. Chemjet's the loss record is at three trees which were suspect of the oak wilt infection prior to treatment.